Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has direct implications on nutritional status, which leads to a greater risk of developing malnutrition, due to anorexia and muscle catabolism that these patients present, mainly those with renal replacement therapy (RRT). It is interesting to note that the mortality rate of patients with CKD in Mexico is 51 per 100,000 inhabitants, which, for the most part, are a consequence of lack of control of blood pressure, diabetes, as well as obesity or other conditions, of which, the basis of treatment is correct dietary advice along with low to moderate intensity exercise. The objective of this narrative review is to document the state of the art on CKD and the Mediterranean diet together with aerobic exercise. Although the incidence of CKD is increasing, there do not appear to be any evidence-based lifestyle recommendations for the primary prevention of CKD. Current guidelines suggest the use of the malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) to identify patients at increased nutritional risk. The implementation of medical nutritional therapy in patients with CKD is a fundamental part of multidisciplinary treatment, being the best preventive maneuver that allows preserving renal function, the above in conjunction with pharmacological adherence and physical exercise, which results in benefits for the patient`s health and improvement in their quality of life.